Reading and dating roman imperial coins
Of the three theories the last was the least important; it was evidently directed against the pope, whose constitutive role it implicitly denied, but it was also a specifically Italian reaction against the predominance in practice of Frankish and German elements.
It pictured Paul von Hindenburg on one side and an eagle on the other.Adolf Hitler was sworn in a Chancellor of Germany by Paul von Hindenburg at the Church in 1933.It burned down in the fires caused by the Allied bombing in 1945. Re- volt of Andriscus; Amphaxitis; Beroea; Bottiaea Emathiae; Dium; Edessa; Heracleia Sintica; Pella; Phila (? The staters however follow, for the most part, the Babylonic standard of the coins of Thasos (? There exists also an uninscribed electrum stater of the Phocaic standard (Fig. (H.) Macedon, semi-independent and, later, under the Romans. In weight the largest denominations are octadrachms of the Phoenician standard, which was perhaps derived from the important city of Abdera. of pure gold, which differentiates it from the coins of Chios (Babelon, op. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar, in 924.
The empire never achieved the extent of political unification formed in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units, principalities, duchies, counties, Free Imperial Cities, and other domains.
The power of the emperor was limited, and while the various princes, lords, bishops, and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they also possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories.
Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806, after the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon.
The term sacrum ("holy", in the sense of "consecrated") in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa ("Holy Empire"): the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy.
In addition to the numerous special monographs on the coins of various Macedonian and Thracian cities and kings, which are to be found in the volumes of the Numismatic Chronicle, the Revue numismatique, the Zeitschrift fr Numismatik and other periodicals, the following are some of the more important works to which the student of the money of Northern Greece may be referred :— In the following pages, which treat of the coins of Macedon, Thrace, and the north-western and northern coasts of the Euxine, an attempt has been made to present to the student a clearer method of classification by describing the coins of these northern regions in the following seventeen groups (A-H, Macedon and Paeonia, and I-R, Thrace and the northern coast of the Black Sea).